Caribbean Basin Initiative

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Bioenergy > International cooperation > Latin America and the Caribbean > Caribbean Basin Initiative


According to Wikipedia, the "'Caribbean Basin Initiative' (CBI) was a unilateral and temporary United States program initiated by the 1983 "Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act" (CBERA). The CBI came into effect on January 1 1984 and aimed to provide several tariff and trade benefits to many Central American and Caribbean countries....The 'Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Expansion Act' of 1990, known as 'CBI II', made the CBI permanent.... However, once the U.S. entered into the NAFTA agreement in 1994 with Mexico it became easier for Mexico to export its products to the U.S. CBI countries had lost their advantage relative Mexico, a major competitor in industries such as textiles and apparel, so they sought to increase their own preferences and achieve 'NAFTA parity'. Those efforts were not successful until the 2000 Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act, which was broadened in 2002. Several exports from the region continue to receive preferential status in the U.S., however those preferences will likely be replaced by bilateral Free Trade Agreements, and possibly by the proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas." (Source: Wikipedia)

Geographic Caribbean Basin

The "Caribbean Basin" or "Greater Caribbean" has also been used to group all developing countries adjoining the Caribbean Sea, including Mexico, all of Central America (including El Salvador which does not have a Caribbean coastline), Colombia, Venezuela and all countries in the Antilles (including Barbados which is actually in the Atlantic Ocean). All of these countries have a climate suitable for growing sugar cane and several have been identified as potential producer of ethanol and other biofuels.

The following is the complete list of the 23 Caribbean Basin countries: Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador. Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.

News

Issues

  • "Most of the U.S. market is supplied by domestic refiners producing ethanol from American corn. However, imports play a small but growing role in the U.S. market. One reason for the relatively small role is a 2.5% ad valorem tariff and (more significantly) a 54-cent-per-gallon added duty on imported ethanol. These duties offset an economic incentive of 51 cents per gallon for the use of ethanol in gasoline. However, to promote development and stability in the Caribbean region and Central America, the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) allows the imports of most products, including ethanol, duty-free. While many of these products are produced in CBI countries, ethanol entering the United States under the CBI is generally produced elsewhere and reprocessed in CBI countries for export to the United States. The U.S.-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) would maintain this duty-free treatment and set specific allocations for imports from Costa Rica and El Salvador."
  • "Costa Rica, El Salvador, Jamaica, and Trinidad & Tobago are the only countries that have ever exported ethanol under the CBI quota."
  • "U.S. producers argued that removing water from hydrous ethanol did not meet CBI criteria. Caribbean producers argued that it did. Eventually, a settlement was reached, which left us with the policies in place today."... "In addition to the volume of CBI ethanol allowed to be imported into the United States via "substantial transformation" of European and Brazilian feedstock, the CBI allows for higher levels of "full fermentation" process ethanol derived from indigenous feedstock."


The Caribbean edit

Antigua and BarbudaBahamasBarbadosCubaDominicaDominican RepublicGrenadaHaitiJamaica
Saint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesTrinidad and Tobago
Institutions: Inter-American Development Bank
Caribbean Basin Initiative

Latin America and the Caribbean edit

Regional institutions: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB Biofuels Sustainability Scorecard) | International Ethanol Commission
Caribbean Basin Initiative | Southern Agricultural Council
Organizations: LAC-CORE
Countries - Caribbean: Antigua & Barbuda | Aruba | Bahamas | Barbados | Cayman Islands | Cuba | Dominica | Dominican Republic | Grenada | Guadeloupe | Haiti | Jamaica | Martinique | Puerto Rico | St. Kitts and Nevis | St. Lucia | St. Vincent and the Grenadines | Trinidad & Tobago | Turks & Caicos Islands | Virgin Islands
Central America: Belize | Costa Rica | El Salvador | Guatemala | Honduras | Mexico | Nicaragua | Panama
South America: Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Colombia | Ecuador | French Guiana | Guyana | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | Uruguay | Venezuela


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